The Third Section
3.0 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PACAS
3.0 There are five different types of deep limiting constraints (pacas) viz. anavam, tirotayi, cuttamayai, acuttamayai and karma.
Among these anavam is : eternal, one, universally present (vipu), uncreated, with limitless power to obstruct the cognitive processes among all the psyches with whom it is united like verdigresse in copper. It is also called - pasunikaram, pasuttuvam, malam, ancanam, avittai, avirutam, mulamalam, mirittiyu, tamasu, cenmapicam, avaranam, acutti, mokam, cakacamalam and so forth.
3.1 The premises for postulating the truth of such an anavam are as follows:
The Egos must be one that is capable of universal and absolute consciouness but delimited somewhat by something. We also see them as beings of inferior knowledge (arpa arivu) and hence cannot be one that removes the malas. Unlike for Civa, inferior knowledge or understanding that is defiled is not natural to the egos. Also not all the egos have a uniform kind of understanding. It is also heard that the egos become capable of universal consciousness on attaining mukti. Besides these the egos are also not pure (acusi), have sufferings and develop desires for enjoying the objects of the world. This must be due to anava malam, i.e. that which breeds Darkness in understanding.
3.2 Now tirotayi is the atisakti (The Primordial Power) that in-itself is consciousness. Since anavam is non-intelligent, the atisakti is that which regulates the limitless power of anavam. This is classified as pacam in view of the fact that it is mentioned after the weakening of karma.
3.3 Now cuttamayai is eternal and one; it permeates all the material objects, in itself it is non-intelligent and pure. It is the basis of the four different kinds of language of cukkumi, and so forth, the non-intelligent objects of mantram, patam, vannam and kalai; the five cutta tattvas of Civa tattva and so forth, the regions that exist in them and the Vinjnanakalar that are in those regions. It is also the basis for the body and so forth of the lords of these regions i.e. the archetypal forms such as mantra-mahesvara, anucatacivar and so forth. It is the generative power (parikiraka cakti) that is said to be the Power for GROUNDING (vaippu cakti) of Civa. It is also termed variously as Kundalini, Kutilai, Makamayai, Urttuva -mayai, Vintu and so forth.
3.4 The premises for saying there is such a thing is: the various processes mentioned above will not be true/real unless there is such a causal basis.
3.5 While the cuttamayai is the higher portion (urttuvapakam), the lower is acuttamayai. And it is eternal, constitutes physical materiality of objects (vastu rupam), the ground of karma, the basis of all that is lower (acuttam), and common to the egos that are cakalar and pralayakalar. It is also the basis from which both the subtle and gross material tattvas (kalati tattuvas) are generated for the egos devoid of any form of physical bodies during cosmic involution. It is also called atomayai, mohini and so forth.
3.6 The premises for stating the reality of such a stuff are as follow: These physical products could not be produced without a basis (upatanam) such as mayai, just like a pot cannot be produced without a ball of clay. Since karma is non-intelligent it could not subsist within the ego. If it does then the ego will become non-intelligent. Since cuttamayai is hierarchically higher, acuttamayai could not also be part of it. Therefore, during cosmic involution (i.e. utter destruction of every physicalistic appearance), there must be acuttamayai as the ground for holding everything thus destroyed(till regeneration).
3.7 Now the nature of karma.
It is called karma because it is generated through verbal, mental and bodily actions. It is termed atittam because though the generated karma is weakened, it stays somehow in object realms till it becomes effective again and like the smell of medicinal ointments, though invisible it stays somehow in buddhi. It is called canakam because it underlines the creation of different types of physical bodies; tarakam as it constitutes a basis for everything, and pokiyam as it is digested (pucikkupututal). It is the causal basis of the three fold miseries of attiyanmikam and so forth. It is in-itself darma-adarma as it is generated at the confluence of psychic consciousness and physical products. It is refined (pakkuvam) during cosmic destruction (pralayam), it forms a basis for the regeneration of physical bodies during creation and it stays in mayai during cosmic involution (cankaram). Also it is something that never disappears unless it is 'worked out' (or 'digested').
3.8 There are three different types of karma: kayikam, vacikam and manacam.
3.9 Among these kayikam is worshipping the devas, beating someone and such other actions that are morally right or wrong (punniyam and pavam). Vacikam is singing devaram and such other sacred hymns; reciting the mantras from the vedas and agamas loudly, softly and mentally; scolding someone and such other (verbal) actions that are morally right or wrong.
3.10 The manasam is the yogic contemplation of the manifested and unmanifested forms of Parasiva using the five sacred letters, the sacred ash and beads (kantikai) of the Saiva Siddhanties and avoiding even the lower forms of contemplation of the Saivas who are one of the six 'inner' camayas that is higher than the three fold and six types of ('outer') camayas; thinking of stealing properties belonging to others and such other (mental) actions that are morally right and wrong.
3.11 This karma is that which constitutes the species type (cati) of genus, the life span and forms of cognition and enjoyment (pokam) and forms the foundation of egoistic (akantai) feelings. Without (proper) karma there is no full life span, good genus and good forms of enjoyment for anyone. The morally right does not annihilate the morally wrong; the morally evil does not annihilate the morally right.
3.12 If prayacittas consistent with the prescriptions of agamas and puranas are done, one can escape from being afflicted by karma. If such things are not done, the ego will suffer the miserable klesas called irauravam and kumpi pakam and be inert like a corpse. Otherwise, it has to be 'digested' to be rid off. The 'digesting' of the pleasures and pains (itam and ahitam) binds one to future births and deaths; as these are acquired through verbal, mental and bodily actions there is rebirth; and as there is 'digestion' of previous karma there is also death. Since it is so from the remote past, this process is an unbroken continuity like the flow of water in the rivers. This causal karma from which arises the karmas is in-itself dharma-adharma, eternal and inseparable like anavam and mayai.
3.13 The problems for affirming the existence of such a karma are as follows:
If two farmers have farmed similar land tracts and sow the seeds according to the Kural of Thiruvalluvar, it is not always the case that what one gets is also gotten by the other. What is the reason for this? Just as it is said 'punniyam is known in the farming that is done', so one must attribute the differences to the (underlying) karma that is known as different measures of punniyam and pavam. Also one may enjoy the bliss of heaven and the other suffer the miseries of hell. The karma is that which the cause of all these (differences).
3.0 The pacas, as already explained (See 1.1) are deepseated underlying realities that make human understanding finite and delimited in innumerable ways. The factors are further identified as anavam, mayai, karma and tirotayi. Here mayai is further divided into acutta mayai and cutta mayai.
The term anavam is derived from the Tamil root 'anu' meaning atomic. It is that
which atomizes i.e finitizes understanding. Mayai is understood in two distinct senses that are interrelated. As a factor of understanding it is that which leads the psyches to
misunderstand things, that which distorts and confuses human understanding so that clear
and true understandings are not possible. Mayai in the second and material sense is that which is the basis of the physicalistic entities that distract the human understanding and trap it within their hold thus preventing an understanding of the transcendent realities.(See also sec. 1 .8&7.0)
Tirotayi is distinct from ignorance induced by anavam. The Absolute Illumination that is Civajnanam is there in the understanding of every psychic being. However under normal ciecumstances it remains HIDDEN or CONCEALED from the view of the psyches and hence it remains something they understand only vaguely. It is this HIDDENESS of Civajnanam that is termed tirotayi. It is lumped together with the finitizing factors i.e malas because of this. But it properly belongs to Pancakritiyas one of the five fold universal activities of the Absolute.
3.3 Vaikari, paicayanti, mattimai, cukkurriai and aticukkumai are forms of language with which human understanding is fashioned. Vaikari is the audible language, the language of phonology, syntax, semantics and such other grammatical categories. Paicayanti is the nonphonemic, non verbal language of dreams and so forth; mattimai is the even more symbolic language of archetypes; cukkumai the language of mantras and aticukkumai the language of Omkaram, the ultimate basis of all that is symbolic and linguistical and enpresents understanding as a historical reality. (See also sec. 5.0)
3.4 to 3.11 For the meanings of karma and related issues see the introduction sec.5.1
3.12 The prayacittas are ritualistic acts that are done and which have therapeutic effect on the persons who effect them i.e. wash away their sins and guilt.
3.13 The tatvas here are the ultimate constituents of human understanding taken in its broadest sense, in a sense in which it includes not only cognitions and perceptions but also the existential elements of feelings and emotions.
The tatvikas are complexes generated out of these tatvas.
The Civa Tatvas are the root archetyptal forms eternally there (generated from the basic tatvas of Natham and Bindu). The absolute in conjunction with Natham is Civam; in conjunction with Bindu is Cakti. The other Civa Tatvas are intermediate forms arising from balanced and unbalanced presence of Bindu and Natham.