In classical psychoanalysis Freud first proposed the topographical model and dynamic model. They postulate the conscious-preconcious-unconcious dimensions of mind and the id-ego-superego relationships.
Subsequently Freud proposed the genetic development of the psyche from birth to the fulfillment into adulthood status. Freud studied the adult patients and not the children for his study. He used free association with the patients and used techniques like transference,counter-transferrence,resistance,working through and insight as psychoanalytic tools.
Freud as soon as he finished his Ego psychology theories passed into the Object relation theories. In the object relations school he studied the early attachments between child and mother. Freud chronologically ordered the child’s development as follows
1.ORAL STAGE(0-1 YEARS)
2.ANAL STAGE(1-3 YEARS)
3.PHALLIC STAGE(3-5 YEARS)
4.LATENT STAGE(5 –TILL PUBERTY)
5.GENITAL STAGE(PUBERTY TO ADULTHOOD)
In the oral stage the child’s primary concern is fixed in taking the feeds and hence it is named as so. The subsequent stage the child begins learn another function that is toilet training. Here the child has to learn to eliminate or retain the feces, hence its muscular function of anus comes to focus.In the oral stage the child has no ego relationships with external objects and is considered to be absorbed into self(self love). This state is called as-PRIMARY NARCISSM.
In the following stage the child begins relationship with the mother as soothing, comforting and protecting agent or object. This is called as object CATHEXIS. But there are disturbances the child begins to notice, the object is not always present in need. The object does not protect at times. At these times the child withdraws its object forces (cathexis) from the mother and redirect back to earlier stage of self absorbtion (self love).This stage is known as –SECONDARY NARCISSM. The process of to and fro object cathexis, symbolically denotes the simultaneous development of toilet training.
Hence it is called anal stage. The
child retains the feces or eliminates it. The retention is called -anal
eroticism and elimination as -anal sadism. The child perceives feces as
precious object and reacts to mothers relationship to the pleasure with
The anal stage development in the psyche is retained and manifests with psychopathologies in adult life.
Anal eroticism leads to obstinancy,rigidity,parsimony,cruelty and frugality..etc. The anal sadism leads to indecisiveness,untidiness,messiness,sadomasochism and procrastination etc.
Now the core points Freud emphasized were the childs libidinal (which is described in ego psychology) drives towards mother is punctuated or disturbed by the needs of the child namely physical security, pain releif, pleasure, hunger releif, comfort needs etc. The childs cognitive status is too poor to understand external reality hence it is in a stage of ignorance and does not know that feces is a waste and mother as permanent object. This puts the CHILD-NARCISSTIC WITHDRAWAL-PHYSICAL PENURIES-IGNORANCE-MOTHER–CHILD cycle of events. The ANAL EROTICISM &SADISM are troubles the child learns in the progress towards the attachment object of the mother.
The NARCISSM literally refers to
self love, persists when the child could not get attached to mother adequately.
It leads to disorders of self, in later life with mirror image transferrance
and primitive idealization of the self. This school in self psychology
thought, propose that the individual suffers from exaggerated self
image, lack of empathy for others and sense of entitlement. They may also
go into borderline disorders with fragmented self image and identity when
the ego functions are inadequate.
The object relation school was subsequently redefined by Melaniekleine, Fairbrain and Winnicott. The self psychology school further developed by Margaret Mahler and Heinz Kohut.
In studying saiva siddhantha
we come across four major stages. They are
The study when begins with pasa state
we find that the soul(jeeva) suffers from pasathalais(pasa=attachments;
thalais=strings). The pasa are described as 3 kinds of pasamala(mala=feces).
The pasa mala are
us see what ANAVA means- as per SIVAGNANASIDDHIAR(verse170 onwards),
1.it blinds the knowledge of the soul
2.it is knowledgeless
3.it corrupts the soul and makes it an orphan(anadhai)
4.it is lifeless
5.it is powerfull and unitary
6.it is responsible for division of the soul into
7.it splits the soul and perishes it
8.it is responsible 3 kinds of AVASTHAIS(distress)
a)kevala: lower state
b)sakala: physical and mental agony
c)suddha: problems from contamination and cleanlesness.
9.it is certain and diffuse
10.it causes atomness(smallness)
11.it has the potentials to
a) reduce the soul to the nature of pasu
b) blinds knowledge
c) kills the soul
g) produces ignorance
h) blocks the progress of soul towards the supreme(pati)
Now we shall pass on to the qualities
of MAYA from SIVAGNANABODHAM (venba7)
The maya is the part of siva and is imparted on the soul by him. It illuminates the soul impartially(asuddha maya) or partially(suddha maya). It acts independently from anava or kanma.
The KANMA consists of external penuries of the soul namely,
AGAYA: from body,mind or verbal.
SANJITHA: by pava or punya deeds
PRARTHA: natural processes like birth,illness,death ..etc.
TRANSITION TO FREUDIAN TERMINOLOGIES:
PASATHALAIS OF THE SOUL=OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
OF THE CHILD
ANAVA MALA OF THE SOUL= NARCISSTIC TRANSFERRENCE OF THE CHILD
KANMA MALA OF THE SOUL = PHYSICAL DISTRESS OF THE CHILD
MAYA MALA OF THE SOUL= COGNITIVE IGNORANCE OF THE CHILD
The Freudian feces is comparable
to the siddhanthic mala. The SOUL suffers from its inability to move towards
the atma(siva) due to the attachment strings(mala) namely anava ,kanma
and maya in combination or in separate forms. These attachments were progressively
severed by sacrificing them. But the soul either suffers from retaining
them or completely severing them both causing suffering. When retained
it suffers with pasa and when eliminated(severed) it suffers from ignorance
(maya) of losing wordly life.this refers to the avasthais in the
SUDDHA state(anava quality-8), which in sivagnanasiddhiar has been described
1. troubles in leaving the jeeva
2.troubles in attaining the authority of siva
3.troublesin enjoying sivahood(BOGA)
4.troubles in relieving other malas
5.trouble in achieving ultimate union.
This avasthai-dichotomy reminds us the anal eroticism vs sadism in Freudian theory.
Whereas when the child is retreated into the narcisstic state it gets all the ill qualities of anava (described in the siddhiar 170 ) from1-to-11. Anava is most evil of all AS IT ANNHILATES THE SOUL. Freudian and its derivatives object relation school and self schools describe the same as NARCISSM -A SEVERE FORM OF SELF DISORDER .
The object relation theories of Sigmund Freud primarily concerns with mother child relationship. In saiva doctrines it is soul(body+mind) and GOD. Therefore the comparison has to be carefull at the outset. Freud studied the mental processes of later adulthood and siddhantha with the souls march towards eternity in a timeless space. Both theories have further studied the respective relationships too. Freud’s libidinal theory and its usage and literary meaning –BOGA- have siddhanthic usage too. Hence we shall go further into the later Saiva siddhantha states namely the pasu state and its Feudian corresponding -the phallic stage, where the ego psychology is vividly explained.