(On Authentic Existence)
THE TENTH SUTRA
Being in the presence of BEING
avanee taanee yaakiya an neRi
eekan aaki iRaipaNi niRka
malamaayai tannodu valvinal inRee
karutturai: ennutaliRRoo venin paacatcayam paNNumaaRu uNarttutal nutaliRRu
THE TENTH AXIOM
Existence constituted by the self living as SAME AS BEING is authentic existence. And when one pursues it, being always One-With-BEING and doing only those dictated by BEING, not only we escape the worldly attachments but also the karma so difficult to disengage otherwise.
General Intention:What is intended is to explain how to neutralize and overcome the cares that bind the anma to the earthly.
1. As the first axiom on Authentic Existence, the goal of all metaphysical inquiries, what OUGHT to be set as the goal in life is outlined here. The crucial term is 'paacatcayam', neutralizing and overcoming the cares for the worldly to which one is chained by maaya malam and karma malam as already explained in the first three sutras. These malams or paacams are what ought to be disengaged, overcome, battled with and destroyed. The term 'tcayam' meaning emerging victorious in war, indicates that it is a battle, a warfare, a spiritual combat and hence not something easy in which one can emerge victorious just by one self alone.
2. The sutra proper outlines the WAY that would ensure victory in this combat. 'avanee taanee aakiya an neRi' is the WAY (neRi) in which the anma remains completely forgethil of itself i.e. remains egoless and fronts in its Being only BEING and nothing else so that the ways of Being in the world are in fact ways of being of BEING itself and not the self In the existence of the self the individuality of the anma is backgrounded so that it becomes invisible, concealed; simultaneously BEING is made to shine out, allowed complete freedom to disclose ITSELF. The personality of the person discloses not the ego but BEING and only BEING. For he does only what is dictated by BEING- the individual agency is lost and he becomes merely a tool of BEING.
3. And since in the vicinity of BEING, only the universals abide, whatever that particularises the anma will not be present there. Hence since the worldly cares and attachments and the karma that throws the anma into worldly circulation are such finitising agents, they will be ineffective to the extent BEING is foregrounded in the existence of the self.
4. The term 'iRai paNi niRRal' defines authentic existence. It is an existence in which whatever is done is not done through self-agency but rather wholly through BEING agency. What is done is no more an act in the ordinary sense but rather an expression of pancakritiyas -sivac ceyal. The activities of the individual fuses with the universal pancakritiyas, the activities of BEING which are in fact in the nature of PLAY, of DANCE.
10.1 mutal atikaraNam ( The First Thesis)
iiNdup parameecuran iv vaanmaavaay ninRa muRaimaiyaan avanidattu eekanaaki
avvaaRu niRkavee yaan enatu ennujn cemkaRRu avanatu cii paatattai aNaiyumaakalaan
Assertion:Since BEING is present as Non-Other with the selves, the selves ousrht to stand as Non-Other with BEING
Reason: Should the selves exist as such, they will lose the egoity and because of which will access the DIVINE GROUND of UNIVERSAL DANCE.
1 The term 'parameecuran' means the totally transcendent Divine Being or Deity. It is rendered here simply as BEING as there is no difference in meaning.
2. The phrase 'yaan enatu ennum certikku altuttal' is rendered here as losing egoity and becoming egoless. By egoity what is meant here is the fronting of sef,t self-agency, self needs and so forth. Egoity underlies the 'I-ness' and'mine-ness' of ordinary existence in which understanding remains not only finite and particularistic but also wholly-For-Self and Not-For-Other.
3. The term 'ciipaatam', literally means theDivine Feet but metaphorically the Universal Dance, the PLAY of BEING because of which the world is what it is. BEING cannot ever be fully comprehended, what is humanly possible is an understanding of HIS WORKINGS, the PLAY.
edutuk kaaddu 10.1.1
naan avan enRu eNNinarkku naadum uLam Undaatal
taanena onRu inRiyee taan atuvaay - naan ena OnRu
illenRu taanee enum avarait tan adivaittu
illenRu taan aam iRai
Anyone who persists in differentiating one self as I and another as he and so forth, is still in search of absolute illumination (as he is still enmeshedin finitude). But should he become genuinely egoless with identification of self with everything that stands as Other and thus neutralize Alterity, he would evolve into an individual who has successfully absolved every egoity. BEING then would grace such an individual by admitting him into the realms of Universal Dance and possess him and grace him totally so that egoity is completely neutralized, never to be met with again.
1. Unless an individual identifies himself first with everything that stands as Other and annul thereby every alterity, the destruction of egoity is impossible and hence the finititude. Understanding would still remaintemporical, with absolute illumination still far in the horizon. The individual continues to be a searcher, restless in his quest, unsatiated in his search for mum.
2. The destruction of Alterity which is a precondition for Absolute illumination, Civajnaanam, is not simply a matter of philosophic pursuits, intellectual adventures, logical acrobatics. The egoity that persists in self-differentiations and accentuations of differentia can be overcome only when LOVE comes to prevail as that which conditions existence. It is NOT knowledge that neutralizes alterity but uncalculating LOVE, a LOVE that is spontaneous and receives an Other as if itself. When every Other is taken and identified with self the distinction between self and not-self is overcome and Alterity neutralized. It is only PURE LOVE that can destroy egoity and neutralize Alterity.
3. An egoless self is totally universal, having absolved everything that particularizes, finitises and make the understanding temporical and historical. The universalistic understanding is ahistorical and atemporical. when understanding is thus universalized the anma is matured, developed to the level where BEING can grace it by allowing entry into the REALM of Universal Dance, the Thiru ciRRampalam or Citambaram. Entry into this Realm means total and irrevocable possession by BEING and because of that being in total and absolute illumination. There now prevails an understanding in which everything is understood by being-one-with everything. Standing as it is in itself nonalienly and hence enjoying an understanding in which there is no error, untruth, distortion, diffraction and so forth constitutes this end mode of Being. Understanding ceases to be interpretive and hence transcends hermeneuticality, the breeding ground of errors, misconceptions, misunderstandings and so forth.
10.2iraNdaam atikaraNam (The Second Thesis)
meerkooL: ini, iRaipaNi vazuvaatu niRka venRatu
eetu: avan aruLaal allatu
anjnaana kanmam piraveeciyaa aakalaan
Assertion:Now thou should persist in doing only those dictated by BEING.
Reason: Because BEING does not do anything other than by GRACE,there will be no accruing to oneself karmic traces that would throw an individual into the world of ignorance.
1. The term 'aruL', a central term in Saiva Siddhanta has no suitable equivalent in English. The closest we have is Grace, which does not communicate effectively all the connotations aruL has in Tamil. The most relevant sense is a disposition wholly-For-Other, a spontaneous, uncalculating and nonreward seeking expression of LOVE.
2. The term 'iRaipaNi niRRal' can also be interpreted as 'toNdu', selfless services rendered to the community. Here we are interpreting it as doing things solely in total submission to the dictates of BEING so thatactions are not of the self but rather of BEING.
By 'anjnaana kanmam 'is meant the type of karma traces that chain the individual to the world of historical flux, of being born again and again endlessly.
edutuk kaaddu 10.2.1
naamalla intiriyam, nam vaziyin alla, vazi
naamalla, naamum aran udamaiyaam ennin
ettanuvil ninRum iRaipaNiyaarkku illai vinai
muRceyvinaiyum taruvaan mun
The selves are not the senses and these are not always under our regulations. Even the ways in which the senses function are not determined by the selves. And furthermore we are totally possessed by BEING as IT in fact determines whatever we are. If that is so, no matter in what kind of physical body one exists, as long as one does only things as dictated by BEING, one shall not gain karmic traces that would further bind one to earthly existence. And furthermore the past deposits that remain in the unconscious will also be brought out into the open and made elements of conscious perception.
edutuk kaaddu 10.2.2
caarntaaraik kaattal talaivar kadanaatai
caartaaraik kaattum calamilanaayc - caarntu adiyaar
taan taanaac ceytu piRar tangkaL vinai taan koduttal
aayntaar mun ceyvinaiyum angku
It is obligatory of the part of a LEADER to safeguard the interests of those who stand dependent on him. BEING, as the LEADER of all who surrender themselves to HIM, does so too. And even though HE does all that needs to be done, remains however unaffected by all such doings. what BEING does is to make every such individual attain self-realization and through that become completely autonomous. HE also PLAYS them so that the unliberated too are instructed by the liberated so that they too destroy their own enchaining karma. Furthermore when a person reflects on the PLAY of BEING such as this, he also comes to understand how in fact he existed in the days of ignorance and how he unknowingly enchained himself by eliciting the enchaining karmas.
1. The above two arguments describe in greater detail the functioning of an individual completely under the command of BEING and hence aspects of authentic existence. The first discloses the autonomy that pertains to an individual within such an existence and how it comes about. The selfis dissociated from the senses so that the seeking of sensorial pleasures, characteristic of the unliberated, is no more. The selectional principles operative in the phenomenology of perception cease to be self-willed and become completely determined by BEING and hence directed towards the attainment of absolute illumination. The entire hermeneutical experience of the individual is now taken over by BEING so completely that one becomes helpless and powerless in determining the course of one's own actions. The individuals become possessed by BEING so much so that they become belongings (udamai) of BEING.
2. We have also here an argument against distinctions of caste, creed and sex in the domains of authentic existence. No matter in what physical frame one happens to exist, all those in authentic existence lose their individuality and become alike in being possessed by BEING. All such individuals are EQUAL, and only such individuals are equal for whatever they do are in fact the doings of BEING and not the individual selves. Individuality is lost and universality comes to prevail neutralising whatever differences that might have existed before. A spirit steeped in universality ceases to be particularistic and hence narrowly tribal in al broad sense of the word.
3. There is no releasement without bestowing absolute illumination as it has already been pointed out earlier (Sutra 8, atikaraNam 1). Bestowing absolute illumination includes disclosing the hidden past of an individual as well. BEING as that which knows everything is certainly capable of instructing an individual also on his past, the various forms of life he has led, courses of action he had indulged in and the karmas that he had elicited and which remain as elements of his own unconscious even now. The individual must also be informed of his cosmic-historic past in order to destroy the mystery surrounding his existence and without which total releasement is impossible. BEING assumes also the role of a GURU who instructs now psychoanalytically the persons own evolutionary past that remain as deposits in his unconscious.
4. The arguments in 10.2.2 center on the fact that BEING as the LEADER is obliged to safeguard and protect the individuals from destruction provided they submit to HIS authority. As the Supreme Power in the political sense, it is OBLIGATORY on the part of BEING to protect the individuals, act in such a way that the DARKNESS does not intrude and cause deaths - mental as well as physical. Those who surrender, lose their own will and submit completely to the WILL of BEING, are taken into realms of existence beyond the reach of the long 'arms of Aanavam, the ANTIBEING, the BLACK MASS that swallows every appearance.
5. Such actions of BEING are not actions in the ordinary sense and the analogy should not be over-stretched. A king or a political leader cannot remain aloof and unaffected by the measures taken for the sake of the citizens. There is joy when they succeed and fear and anxiety when they fall. BEING as completely autonomous and who knows ALL, has no such fears or anxiety. The Omniscience of BEING, that IT is Absolute illumination itself ensures the nonarising of such affectivities. The word 'calam' is derived from 'cel' or 'cal' meaning to move, agitate and so forth. 'calam ilan' is one who is free of such affectivities, disturbances and so forth. BEING remains absolutely beyond, totally undisturbed, forever unaffected.
6. The expression 'taan taanaayc ceytal' is crucial in explaining the meaning of individual freedom in Saiva Siddhanta. An individual is FREE only to the extent he is free of desires and which comes to be only when he is totally nonparticularistic i.e universalistic. Any form of particularism discloses the presence of prejudices and hence a circumspection of understanding. A circumscribed understanding is NOT a free understanding and such an individual, because of that, is also not free. BEING is absolutely autonomous as it is totally free of any particularism and the individuals who approach BEING and submit completely to be formed by BEING are transmuted into being absolutely FREE individuals, transformed into the image of BEING itself An individual becomes FREE only when he loses all egoity and lets BEING overpower him totally. He is FREE only to the extent he submits to BEING, total submission meaning total freedom! Fusing self with BEING is fusing self with genuine freedom.
7. A new obligation emerges amongst those who are well entrenched in authentic existence. The self-illumination that has been reached by an individual obliges him to disclose it to others and thereby enable them also to enter the infinitely self-fulfilling authentic existence. The releasement and the consequent absolute illumination obliges them to serve as a GURU to others who are yet to be thus graced and guide them bv reforming their actions so that they do the RIGHT and avoid the WRONG. The clarity attained obliges one to impart it to others, communicate it to others spontaneously. The genuinely liberated do not guard Civajnaanam as a private possession to be enjoyed solely by oneself and to be imparted only to those who meet one's fancy. It is not a secret to be hoarded and guarded as exclusively one's own.
8. Such a free impartation to whoever seeks is not without its benefits. The impartation of deep illuminations freely to whoever seeks them becomes self-instructional in a way. It is in the course of such pedagogic activities that one can reflect upon one's own past which is made a visible presence by the conduct of the students. The term 'aayntaar mun ceyvinaiyum angku' means reflections on one's praratta karma, the accumulation of karmic traces by actions effected prior to that moment and which has led to the present state of affairs. The understanding of the form and functions of such karmic traces which remain buried in the unconscious is an important act in the attainment of total releasement. One is helped in such a psychoanalysis of self in the course of pedagogic activities, indulged in the spirit of service to mankind.
edutuk kaaddu 10.2.3
ingkuLi vaangkum kalampool jnaanipaal
muncey vinal maayai muundidinum - pin cey vinai
maayaiyudan nillaatu maRRu avantaan meypporuLee
aaya atanaal uNarum accu
The smell of a strongly pungent stuff is retained by a container even after the stuff has been removed. In the same manner even the individual who has attained the foregrounding of BEING in his existence and thus has become a jnaani, retains these karmic traces binding him to earthly existence. However the actions effected subsequent to becoming a jnaani cease to be thus binding. And flithermore because he investigates only TRUTHS and seeks only genuine illuminations he also comes to understand the mystery surrounding his own birth.
ingkuLi: perungkaayam: a pungent resin.
edutuk kaaddu 10.2.4
naN anal veevaata nal tavar tamminum
paN amara maac celuttum pakarinum - eNNi
aran adi oorbavar aimpulanir cenRum
avar tiRam niingkaar ataRku
Like the adepts in yoga who remain unscathed even amidst burning fire and like the charioteer who magnificently controls the horses and leads the chariot to his own destination, so would the jnaanis. Because they never cease seeking to understand the Dance of BEING and continuously persist in it, they will not be ensnared by the earthly distractions even though the sensorial experiences are lived through.
edutuk kaaddu 10.2.5
itamittal paacattil inRik - katamikku
en katirin mun irul pool eelaa acattin
aruku aNaiyaar, cattu aNaivaar aangku
When an individual who under ordinary circumstances enjoys both the temporical and atemporical understanding, evolves to be a meykaNdaan i.e one who sees only as disclosed by BEING, he would see only the absolute TRUTHS by virtue of the GRACE of BEING. One who succeeds in this will cease enjoying the earthly pleasures and taking delights in the worldly. Like Darkness that is dispelled by radiant sunlight, the absolute illumination thus attained would dispel the untruths. Thus the MeykaNdaan will not approach the false, the flux prone but will bask only in the flux immune absolute illumination, pure Radiance.
1. Authentic existence as founded solely by effectuation of actions as decreed solely by BEING and which are on that account Wholly-For-Other and not at all FOR-SELF-ITSELF, cease to elicit, because of this, karmic traces which would further bind the anma to the earthly. The traces which are nevertheless acquired are of the liberating sort; they UNBIND the individual and make him more and more universalistic by destroying egoity.
2. Within such an authentic existence the karmic traces of the more recent and very ancient past are however not completely wiped off as earthly existence continues and they too continue to be effective. They are compared in their effectiveness to the smell that is retained by a container even after the stuff has been removed in the sense that in due course, they will not be there anymore as continuous productions of the fragrance is no more. It will dwindle and finally disappear as there is no replacement of
3. An unshakable resolve to see TRUTHS and nothing else but truths is characteristic of authentic existence. Such an existence is compared to the yoga adept who remains unaffected even amidst burning fire. Existence comes to be determined by vairaakiyam, a single-minded resoluteness that remains unscathed by the worldly fires that continuously flare up and burst into immense flames. The worldly desires cease to fire the jnaani, burn him with eagerness, anxiety and so forth. He remains untouched by the long fingers of such flames being mindful of only the philosophic pursuits in search of TRUTHS, of absolute illuminations.
4. The model of a charioteer is brought in to explain the manner in which a jnaani would manage his body. The body of course is the chariot with the senses and other organs visualized as the horses. When the drive is not well managed, the chariot will go where the horses pull it to. However when the management is effective, the pull is directed towards the destination already set before the journey started and FOR-WHICH the authentic existence is, the sojourning is for. The jnaani, fully in the resoluteness towards the attainment of absolute illumination manages even the body for that purpose; regulates the bodily needs so that they do not interfere with what he has resolved to attain, the destination he wants to reach, searching the HOME towards which the evolutionary journey is.
5. The destination, the END-IN-SIGHT that conditions authentic existence is of course moksa, Viidu PeeRu, the final HOME COMING. The HOME is Thiru CiRRampalam, the realm of absolute TRUTHS, of atemporical, ahistorical existence. When an individual liberates himself from his ordinary existence where both temporical and atemporical are understood, the flux immune and flux prone experiences are enjoyed, and enters the realms of only absolute TRUTHS i.e. becomes a meykaNdaan by foregrounding BEING in existence and seeing only as shown by BEING, he enjoys only absolute TRUTHS. The immense bliss that floods the individual in such experiences make the worldly pleasures not only trivial but also absent as Darkness is so at the presence of brilliant sunlight. It becomes impossible for such an individual ever to encounter untruths and become enmeshed in them. In the realm of Thiru CiRRampalam only TRUTHS exist and hence only TRUTHS seen, appropriated and enjoyed.
6. Abstinence is not avoidance, is not starving to the point of death or extreme weakness. A life of abstinence is a vigorous life where the sensual may be indulged in but always unforgetful of the pursuit of TRUTH. One should continue to maintain the body in excellent condition with the proviso that its activities are directed towards gaining absolute illumination. What must always be maintained is the presence of BEING in one's own Being so that existence moves developmentally to a greater presence of BEING in the self We must combat vigorously so that FALLING is avoided and BEING continuos to shine resplendently in our Being. Only when we live thus that we can avoid the emergence of the false and being caught by its charms.
7. The cat, the absolutistic understanding emerges only when the individual visage is displaced by the visage of BEING, when the individual begins to see the way BEING sees. Authentic existence has this as its goal and hence not only maintaining the presence of BEING but also making it more and more resplendent so that in the end only BEING is visible in the personality of the individual. This is the condition that is described as 'cattu aNaital', the attainment of absolute illumination, seeing only as BEING sees.