|Having wrested out the truth that human praxis is an appropriation
of the universal or divine praxis of BEING as FOR-SELF-ITSELF and hence
the emergence of Ego and human agency over and above the universally present
divine, Arunandi now interrogates further on the notion of Karma that underlies
the phenomenality or historicity of the psychic entities with particular
focus on the notion of justice. There is involvement with the earthly-
the realm of the acuththa maayai- the physicalistic or materialistic the
necessity of which is not clear yet. Furthermore the question: What is
Karma in the final analysis still remains unexplored. This is done in this
chapter in such a way that the link between karma and mantrayana, an integral
and the deepest part of Saiva Siddhanta, is allowed to emerge.
À'ò ÀÏ¤ - À±Ö -×¯« ×'âÀòî
maan amarunj chengkai mathil veNNai vaazmanna
Oh Thou the monarch residing in the city of VeNNai, girdled with a strong fortress possessed by the archetype of SIVA wherein He holds the deer emblem on his right hand, explain to me: will the karma that I have overcome return and repossess me again on its own or will it be possible for me to reacquire it, be enmeshed in it knowingly or unknowingly. Oh Thou the most POWERFUL and absolutely PURE! How does your ARUL function: does it dissolve the karmic bonds or enchain the anmas in it ?
Note: The emblem of musk dear, the kalai maan with its multiply branching horns, is a symbol of POWER, VIRILITY and royal authority and hence consonant with the description of Meykandaar as a monarch, reigning supreme in the world of philosophy. There is philosophic sovereignty just as much as political, an expression of the will to Power, as Nietsche have put it. And this is the reward a true sivajnaani gets at a certain time in his life. Note that such a life is not the life of a recluse but rather of intense action.
thEraathu uraippan therumaral uLaththOtu
Because of immense confusion, perplexity and uncertainty, I raise questions and it is duty of the wise to clarify the matter without avoiding and deviating from the issue.
òî Ò¿º³ ò
n-innaik kalappathu en uNmaiyE
It is a truth about myself that eventually I allow myself to be possessed by Thee and in this context thou art absolutuely fair and just, qualities that are beyond verbal articulation and mental grasp.
à×´ °'³Øò â³ã Ì¯¨Å
ezuvakaith thaathuvin EzthuLai iraNtum
The GAME you play is really amazing and uncanny. Thou bindeth me to a machine-like physical frame of nine kinds of basic elements and with possibilities for nine kinds of windows of perception and allow me to liberate myself from this bondage and enjoy the state of no return to phenomenality, through a PLAY on my desires , competencies for action and reflection, keeping me there in all the existential turmoil without ever destroying me.
While it is so, understanding everything without error the actions of the anmas executed as labor , speech acts and mental acts, understanding also the real import of the words thoughts and praxis in general, discriminating the good from the evil among these, Thou dispenseth what is worth to each without faltering and in a faultless manner and assign spatiotemporal dwellings that each deserves with absolute clarity. And because of this Thou art the most just and absolutely fair, a SUPREME JUDGE absolutely without any faults.
'òþé'Ñ -Ë± À'òì Ï¿»òþé
chaanROr cheythi maanRu iruppinRE
And in the worldly existence the actions of the faultless and noble individuals are not further binding but rather liberating; it is only the actions of the ordinary individuals, being egoistic, can be deviant and hence further binding.
´³×' -À´± ¥' ØîæÅ
aththuvaa meththi atangkaa vinaikaLum
Thou doth purify even actions that are beyond the (six fold) aththuvas when a stage of no self agency in effecting actions are reached.
Notes: the aththuvas are compositional elements of act- processes and
are enumerated as manthiram ( abstract power syllables that compose objects)
patham ( linguistic structures developed from the power syllables) vaNNam
(the prosodic and other intonation related aspects and musical features
of language), puvanam( the material and immaterial WORLD that provides
a dwelling), thaththuvam( here the siva thaththuvas, the primordial archetypes),
kalai ( the five processes of the cuththa maayai: prathittai, nivriththi
ÿî -×òî â ØîæÅ
n-Ingkina vennai Ungku Uz vinaikaLum
Now as against this , how is it that even subsequent to my being relieved of karmic bondage, there are actions effected ? Why are there actions even here(instead of inaction) and for whose benefit are they?
And furthermore when the needs for acting are transcended, it becomes useless and unbecoming to instruct anymore on JUSTICE and FAIRNESS (the conditions for judgements are already transcended)
Notes: tharumam puraththal: safeguarding justice and fair play in every action and indulgence.
¯ñ¯ ÀÆ Ï´±ñª Ï´°
kaNNinuN maNiya karuththinut karuththa
Oh Thou, the EYE within the eye, the THOUGHT within the thought and who has descended as MeykaNda ThEva of VeNNai, explain to me how within this painful bodily embodiment, it is possible for the emergence of ARUL that is ineradicable and indestructible.
1) The central insights wrested out in chap. 7 is the presence of Universal Praxis and its appropriation by the creatures as FOR-SELF-ITSELF, for its own ends purposes etc and because of which emerges the finitude disclosing Human Praxis along with human agency. The presence of moral competence and ethical intuition is located in this appropriation and BEING promoting the destruction of such egoity. The sense of < I > and <mine> are continuously challenged and destroyed so that human praxis ceases to be different and coincides with DIVINE PRAXIS. The finitude is destroyed gradually so that a universalism comes to prevail. As long as actions are effected as FOR-SELF-ITSELF, human agency and egotism will be present and along with it the necessity to JUDGE actions with respect to their moral worth. Such a judgement becomes unavoidable as the possibility of not gravitating towards BEING and hence not submitting towards muktotropism is always there. While there are contextually and culturally derived values that come to have a part in moral judgements, what transcends all specificity is the universal fact that such actions are NOT UNIVERSAL PRAXIS and call for moral judgements. When the actions are towards the destruction of Egoity, the anmas are led to feel that such actions are good, right, meritorious etc and those opposed to that evil, immoral, deviant etc. Moral anguish and absence of it along with a kind of euphoria or delight are the sorts of FEELINGS that are educative with respect to moral dimensions of the actions. Each time a moral judgement is made, there is implicit reference to the Universal Praxis, which serves as that AGAINST WHICH the current action is being judged. All judgements and evaluations presuppose an understanding of the Universal Praxis of the PURE GROUND of BEING, an understanding already there but not shining forth because of the mummalams, the obscurants that cloud the seeing, dim the vision.
2) Against the background of such an understanding of the origin of moral sense, karma is seen as that which underlies the historicity of existence, the anma continuously being bound to a bodily biological existence - as a male or female person, belonging to a community, a citizen of nation, a member of tribe, caste etc, a member of an ethnic group, linguistic tribe, a cultic or cultural community etc. Karma is that which throws the anma to samsara, phenomenal circulation, continuous and uninterrupted existential repetition. Such an existence or karmic bondage persists as long as there is finitude, Darkness of IGNORANCE in understanding and hence egoity and because of which arise actions that are FOR-SELF-ITSELF. Existence characterized by Being-One-With-the -WORLD along with Being-One-With-BEING, i.e. existence with a DUALITY of essence, the anmas being in essence sonadic-monads will persist, with its unavoidable stress, anxiety and anguish.
3) Locking up the anmas within a complex machine-like body composed out of different kinds of organic substances, providing within them various kinds of autonomic processes that sustain life as such; the provision of several sense faculties and competencies for sensing or seeing; the implantation of psychotropisms of various kinds because of which arise human praxis and with the help of which an understanding of Universal Praxis is gained; this whole drama, the PLAY of BEING is, to say the least, most astonishing, bewildering. BEING provides the <thanu> a bodily frame, <karaNam> various kinds of utensils both physical and mental, <puvanam> a dwelling within a world for being present as such, <pOkam>, enjoyments or experiences of various kinds. The motivational dynamics is provided by the psychotropisms and actions are effected using these utilities in order to attain the desired. Such a PLAY that ultimately results in the anmas ACTING and out of which arises an understanding of HUMAN PRAXIS, the moralistic aspects of which disclose the presence of UNIVERSAL PRAXIS as already there but which remains unappropriated, is amazing indeed. And this amazement issues forth on grasping the REAL MEANING of human existence : to effect actions and through that destroy egoity and learn to effect actions that are in consonance with those of BEING.
4) This dissolution of egoity and hence action FOR-SELF-ITSELF is something facilitated by BEING who remains absolutely fair (natuvan) for providing each in accordance with what he rightly deserves. There is no favoritism, injustice, unfairness, misjudgments, overlooking some aspects and so forth. There is non-deviance from what is the most appropriate and right (muRai pizaiyaamai), each is given what he richly deserves so that there is no excess or deficiency ( kuRaivu niRaivu inRaay) and a dwelling is provided with a clear understanding of the accomplishments of the individual (kaalamun- theeyamum maalaRa vakuththu). Being grasps every kind of actions effected so that nothing of an individual remains unknown and the good as well the bad are both taken into account without error. BEING is absolutely JUST and whatever is meted out by BEING is beyond complaints and criticism. One receives what one rightly deserves from BEING and we have to acquiesce with whatever that is bestowed either in the form of happiness and misery in this life or forms of existence in subsequent births. The JUST and RIGHT are whatever meted out by BEING; we have but to acquiesce with them no matter how different and deviant they are from the existing social norms and values.
5) It is possible that the technical term <aththuvaa> is derived from <aRRu- aa> meaning processes that introduce discontinuities and reconstitutions. The event of an action is made a phenomenal reality because of such configuring processes which dismantle and reassemble, introduce ruptures and later cement them. It can also mean violating the forces that imprison and releasing the powers that make possible an action -event become a historical reality. The enactment of the action event requires as the facilitating elements mantra-phonemes (manthiram), mantragrams (patham) , distinct patterns or configurations (vannam) ; worlds of different types as the stage for the effectuation , the nonmantric stuff out of which emerges the concrete and the abstract entities that populate the world as such; and the cognitional and hermeneutic processes (kalaikaL) of various sorts. This complex machination of action-events, how it comes to be a thing called action in the world , is truly amazing. But the point Arunandi makes is not simply this bewilderment but rather the sense of JUSTICE and FAIRNESS that he sees as more fundamental, permeating through and through the whole gamut of human experience, the whole drama of human praxis. Beyond the individual and social norms regulating human behavior, thanks to the presence of ARUL of BEING, each action gets rightly and unfailingly what it richly deserves, that in the presence of BEING there cannot be injustice and unfairness.
6) The notions of justice and fairness is seen to prevail when the wrong doings do not go unpunished and the virtuous rewarded appropriately. Over and above the political and religious authorities who may err in rewarding actions, where the right may go unrewarded or what is worse, get punished and the wrong either unpunished or even rewarded, there is BEING who does not err at all- rewards justly each according what he rightly deserves, whatever he desires. Over and above the social and political rewarding systems, there is the DIVINE that unfailingly and unerringly dispenses to each strictly according to the quality of actions that have been done. Such a rewarding system belongs to an aspect of Universal Praxis that blossoms in the presence of BEING. The action effected, at the point it is effected, elicits its own reward from this Universal Praxis that accrues to the individual as his karma, seeds that at the appropriate time will mature and produce its effect. What the actions elicit are mantra-traces that get inscribed into the record of the individual, a record that determines the modes of his Being-in-the-World whether pleasant or painful. This process transcends the sociopolitical , religious and cultural and touches the Universal Praxis that pre-exists the historical and phenomenal. The Universal Praxis or the relevant part of it, not only embraces the current existence but also the future, the yet to be realized. The traces inscribed as what is elicited by actions, chain the person not only to the current and the immediate future but also to the distant. The rewards not only fructify in the present existence but also in the births that are yet to be enjoyed. Such karmic traces are classified into various categories depending upon the manner they fructify. The karmic traces thus elicited are termed aakaamiyam- that which are elicited because of desire related purposive actions. While some such inscriptions or traces inscribed flower immediately as the outcome of the action, there are some that may be delayed and only show up in the future. Some however, may not flower within this life itself but may carry over as part of the evolutionary mechanism to the future births. Such traces are termed Prapta Karma, karma that determines the form of existence itself that is now repeated. Some that may go subterranean and disclose themselves as psychic disorders ,illness, mental deficiencies, ailments, deformations etc are Sanjitham, that which conjoins ciththam, the deepest part of the mental (sam-ciththam> sanjitham?) and instrumental in regulating the biological processes including the genetic. The fairness in meting out the action outcomes is concerned with these prapta and sanjitha karma that are effective in determining the modes of Being in the present existence and the yet to come. Though within various sociopolitical and cultural systems that are in fact interpretations of the fundamental, erring is always possible, as against the ABSOLUTE GROUND OF BEING there cannot be errors. BEING is n-atuvan, the unerring JUDGE SUPREME whose judgements and awards are always the RIGHT and the most just and fair. The Universal Praxis reacts, so to speak, to human praxis and rewards most fairly and no one can transcend or distort this system as it functions solely under the authority of BEING. No one can tamper with it, force the issue in favor of oneself through mass action, revolution, bribery, praise,violence ,protests, war of attrition and what not.
It should be mentioned here that the actions themselves are not aakaamiyam etc but only what accrues to the agent and as a response to his praxis from the ever present system of Universal Praxis that includes within itself this rewarding mechanism, all operating in terms of mantras.
7) And now comes the real issue. For over and above those karmic actions
, actions that are FOR-SELF-ITSELF, actions that chain the anmas to historicity,
existential repetition, and phenomenal circulation, are also actions that
EXCEED them and which make a person a caanROn, a great and noble soul whose
has arisen the above worldly and historical, has liberated from the bondage
to samsara. The actions of liberated individuals are faultless (maanRu
iruppinRu) and hence worthy of approbation and imitation . Such individuals,
in their behavior, exemplify the RIGHT , the JUST and FAIR and hence faultless.
In decision making the ordinary individuals will not be wrong if they imitate,
even blindly, the actions of such redeemed anmas. Such individuals are
not purely the political leaders, the heroes of military campaigns, the
most excellent scholars , the exceedingly profound philosophers or even
the saintly but rather individuals, who by virtue of their inner and genuine
PURITY and are thoroughly OPEN, fair just and free of prejudices of whatever
kind that would interfere with the above qualities. They remain AUTONOMOUS
and FREE; do not belong to a community, a religion, a cultural or ethnic
group that are characterized by group dynamics of its own with its own
set of prejudices. The absence of prejudices of whatever kind, makes them
function ABOVE ethical considerations. They have succeeded in liberating
themselves from historicity of existence that makes them effect actions
as FOR-THEMSELVES; what they effect subsequent to this liberation are nothing
else but the Universal Praxis, actions the SAME as those of BEING.
The question now arises: If one is so purified, absolved of all karmic deposits that remain lodged as the unconscious, then how are we to understand the praxis that emerges even subsequent to such an attainment?
8) The problem is posed in the phrase < karumam aruththung kadanathu
vinRaam tharumam puraththal perumaiyathu anRE> : subsequent to singeing
to ineffectivity the unconscious karmic deposits, there is no more MEANING
for human praxis . For the hidden curriculum of existence as such, viewed
as pedagogic in essence, includes as a central element the purification
of the individuals so that they are liberated from the call of CONSCIENCE
always ready to intrude and force ethical and moral judgements and sometimes
even get thrown to states of gnawing uncertainties as to whether one is
right or wrong. The sociopolitical existence is ethically constituted but
the pedagogical processes have as their goal absolving the individuals
of all impurities- the prejudices and such other totalizing agencies that
bring about different group identities. Now at the end of this process
where praxis ceases to be human and whatever that is done are non-different
from the praxis of BEING, the need for further actions is not there anymore.
Existence and praxis that are not karma related and hence outside and beyond
ethical concerns appear to be MEANINGLESS. The REASON for such a praxis
and existence as constituted by it, becomes now something problematic for
the immensely penetrative Arunandi.
1) The answers to the questions raised by Arunandi is contained implicitly in the phrase ,<thutaippathillaa aruL thOnRitac collE.> i.e. the need to be forever in the realms of AruL or divine grace without ever falling out . This is further explicated in the venba that follows this:
-'Ö -°'àÅ½ -'èã ÿ ¡â¹°³ÚÅ í-ÆÖè
chol thozumpu koLLa n-I chUzn-thathuvum n-iRcheyalkaL
Oh Thou who hast descended as SIVA wearing honey filled konRai garlands
in the noble city of VeNNai, explain to me how mysteriously you over power
the individuals so that they lose their self agency gradually and act the
SAME as Thyself and further become totally submissive to thy words .
2) The phrase < the dominance of aruL without ever diminishing> suggests that the analysis of actions in relation to karma that we have already described in terms of aakaamiyam etc, is not sufficient as in such a classification the relationship of actions to aruL are not brought out clearly. The actions are classified in terms of their outcomes but not in terms of how they are related to aruL and maintaining one self in its glow so that it remains undiminishing. Towards this end we offer the following: there are a) uzaRci vinaikaL, actions that are ever binding or circulatory, b) kazaRci vinaikaL, actions that are liberating or unbinding, c) Uzcci vinaikaL, actions that are developmental, that raise individuals to higher levels of Being, and d) malarcci vinaikaL, actions that maintain an anmas forever in the glow of aruL. The vIzcci vinaikaL are those which cause a FALL, takes the anma away from BEING.
The circulatory are those which are purposive, instrumental and always seeking something or other FOR-SELF-ITSELF. And hence in addition to there being human agency, hence egoity, there is also intense discrepancy with the ever present Universal Praxis of BEING. Since such actions further elicit engraving of karmic traces that further bind the anmas to an endless cycle of existential repetition, such actions are termed circulatory.
The liberating type are those which are pedagogic in the general sense , actions and activities of the hermeneutic interpretive type that reduce the DAKNESS of IGNORANCE inherent to the anmas. Such actions are not simply reflective and meditative but ignorance destroying, something that does not take place unless LUMENS are gained and inner light kindled. There is illumination, enlightenment , a better and deeper understanding of existence.
The developmental are the prejudice-destroying actions as a result of which the personality of a person itself is reconstituted and reformed so that he becomes a better person, hierarchically ABOVE the ordinary person he was before and hence MORE POWERFUL and better equipped for social leadership.
The aruL- actions are those which are self-abnegating, destructive of egoity and are of the type WHOLLY-FOR-OTHER. While the ordinary actions background the presence of BEING in Being-in-the-World, the aruL-actions foreground it, making the person more divine. The presence of Ego is withdrawn to allow the presence and dominance of BEING itself so that actions turn out to be the SAME as that of BEING and because of which moral conflicts do not surface at all. Since there is NOTHING higher than this, this is the limit, the end of praxiological development. The function of moral sense or competence is to bring about this way of Being as an existential reality, modes of Being-in-the-World and once achieved there is no more the need for moral evaluations and ethical judgements. Ethics is transcended, one is liberated totally and completely from all kinds of moral anguish. The vIzcci type are the immoral and unethical that allows more and more the inflow of aaNavam so that in the end it leads to self destruction and death. (Already dealt with in the 2nd Chapter)
3) The phrase < thutaippathillaa aruL thOnRital>, that means the DOMINANCE of GRACE so totally, completely, absolutely and without anymore the possibility of it being withdrawn, is the limiting state of human development, that TOWARDS-WHICH the whole of ethical existence carries one. This is the meaning of existence and the FOR-WHICH moral competence exists as a fabric of human constitution. The phrase has several meanings that ought to be investigated too.
i) While earlier, in the moral struggles of historical or phenomenal
existence with temporality of time consciousness, the dominance of ARUL
or GRACE may hold the possibility of being withdrawn and hence existence
thrown again to the rule of karma and aaNavam, the DARK FORCE, in the ultimate
stage that we are considering, this possibility is totally transcended;
there is no more falling back to the historicity, phenomenality. The anma
is fully and irrevocably ruled by GRACE and nothing else.
iii) The Being of the anma at this stage of development is COMPLETE, INTEGRAL and devoid of any wants and hence fully SATURATED. Having withdrawn Being and allowed the total dominance of BEING, it is totally integrated and hence wants NOTHING. Wanting NOTHING for itself, whatever that is done is WHOLLY-FOR-OTHER, something that emerges spontaneously as an expression of PURE LOVE that comes along with it. The praxis of this kind is what is called SIVATHTHONDU, selfless service for mankind out of supreme LOVE, the SIVA ANPU.
4) The SIVATHTHONDU has another meaning that needs to be clarified here.
These are the malarcci vanaikaL, aruL-actions and in the doing of it something
happens even though not wanted as such by the individuals. Having overcome
karma and aaNava malam, there remains the THIROPAVAM, the concealment of
BEING without overcoming which, the total dominance BEING and the withdrawal
of Being is not possible. The praxis that follows the iruvinai oppu, the
transcendence of morality, is precisely those that help the removal of
this concealment of BEING. The self becomes the dwelling where comes to
dwell BEING itself so that one becomes, as Thirumular has observed long
ago, a TEMPLE where BEING itself gets installed.
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